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Appendix to “Revolutions: a selective force for the secular state?” by Edward A.L. Turner
Date Event Trend Notes Country
1789 Revolution Secular Catholic Monarchy is overthrown France
1791 Constitutional Monarchy Catholic Catholic Monarch is restored. France
1792 First Republic Secular De-Christianization in Reign of Terror. France
1798 Helvetic Republic Secular Constitutional Republic. Switzerland
1799 First Republic Secular Napoleon’s Coup d’etat. France
1803 Mediatization Secular Hundreds of ecclesiastical principalities are secularized in the Final Recess. Germany
1804 Napoleonic Empire Secular Persecution of Catholic institutions ends with Concordat of 1801. France
1814 Restoration Catholic Catholic Monarchy is restored. France
1814 Restoration Christian Switzerland returns to Ancien Regime. Switzerland
1821 War of Independence Orthodox Filiki Eteria initiate revolution. against Islamic Ottoman rule. Greece
1830 July Monarchy Catholic New Catholic Monarchy. France
1830 Belgian Succession Catholic Southern provinces break from the United Netherlands. Belgium
1832 Fundamental Laws Orthodox Consequence of the 1825 Decembrist Revolt. Russia
1832 Great Reform Act Protestant Catholic Relief Act 1929 encourages Tories to expand suffrage to include more Protestants. United Kingdom
1848 Roman Second Republic Secular The constitution of this short-lived republic guaranteed freedom of religion. Italy
1848 March Revolution Christian Constitutional Monarch. Christian religion established as state religion. Germany
1848 Sonderbundkrieg Secular (limited) Constitution guaranteed freedom of religion – but only among Christians. Switzerland
1861 Italian Unification Secular Kingdom of Italy declared. Rome captured from the Papal States in 1870. Italy
1870 Revolution Catholic Lead to Third Republic France
1870 Imperial Constitution Secular Single German citizenship, recognised religious freedom. Germany
1871 Paris Commune Secular Short-lived radical government decreed separation of church and state. France
1889 Boulangist movement Catholic Boulanger threatens coup d’etat and establishment of dictatorship. France
1905 Revolution Orthodox Limited Constitutional Monarchy from 1906. Russia
1905 Law of Separation of Church and State Secular Catholicism disestablished as state religion. France
1917 February Revolution Secular Russian Republic. Russia
1917 October Revolution Secular Communist rule established. Russia
1918 November Revolution Secular Communist uprising defeated by nationalists. Germany
1919 Weimar Republic Secular Constitution guaranteed freedom of religion and declared no state church. Germany
1920 League of Nations Secular Switzerland
1925 Il Duce Secular Fascist leader Mussolini establishes a personality cult. Italy
1929 Lateran Treaty Secular Church becomes independent state from Fascist Italy and gains control of the Vatican City in Rome. Italy
1929 Father of Nations Secular Stalin’s personality cult takes off. In 1936 he is called “Father of Nations.” Russia
1931 Second Republic Secular Constitution granted freedom of religion. Spain
1933 Fuhrer Secular Hitler establishes a personality cult of the Fuhrer. Germany
1934 Nazi Germany Secular Hitler becomes dictator Germany
1936 Red Terror Secular Anticlerical violence, at least 30,000 religious figures killed. Spain
1936 Great Purge Secular Stalin kills 100,000 religious officials during the purges of 1937-1938. Russia
1940 Vichy France Secular Officially secular regime during period of Nazi occupation strongly supported by the Catholic Church. France
1940 Religious oppression Secular Concentration camp for religious officials at Dachau. Germany
1945 United Nations Secular Charter establishes fundamental freedoms for all including religion. United States
1946 Fourth French Republic Secular New constitution firmly stated France’s secularism. France
1946 Italian Republic Secular Monarchy abolished in Constitutional referendum. 1948 Constitution made freedom of religion a fundamental principle and maintained independence of Church and State. Italy
1946 Greek Civil War Secular Communist Greece
1949 Federal Republic of Germany Secular Germany
1953 De-Stalinization Secular Communist Russia
1957 Treaty of Rome Secular Treaty established European Economic Community based in Brussels. Belgium
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