A new study published November 20 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology has identified hundreds of small regions of the genome that appear to be uniquely regulated in human neurons. These regulatory differences distinguish us from other primates, including monkeys and apes, and as neurons are at the core of our unique cognitive abilities, these features may ultimately hold the key to our intellectual prowess (and also to our potential vulnerability to a wide range of ‘human-specific’ diseases from autism to Alzheimer’s).
Exploring which features in the genome separate human neurons from their non-human counterparts has been a challenging task until recently; primate genomes comprise billions of base pairs (the basic building blocks of DNA), and comparisons between the human and chimpanzee genomes alone reveal close to 40 million differences. Most of these are thought to merely reflect random ‘genetic drift’ during the course of evolution, so the challenge was to identify the small set of changes that have functionally important consequences, as these might help to explain the genomic basis of the emergence of human-specific neuronal function.
Read more at Science Daily.